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International Journal of Sports Marketing & Sponsorship

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Back issue   Volume 1   Number 4   November 1999


Over the last year, the International Journal of Sports Marketing & Sponsorship has published a variety of papers aimed at stimulating thought, promoting debate and, most importantly, informing practice. The approach taken to achieve this has been to combine contributions from leading academics and sports marketing practitioners from around the world. The current edition continues this philosophy. The issue starts with an interview with Jeff Price, Vice President (US Sponsorships & Events marketing), at MasterCard International. Interviewed in New York by Editorial Board member David Shani, Price provides a forthright account of what MasterCard looks for in a sport marketing opportunity. He gives details of campaigns that have gone well and others that have not, the lessons that have been learned from these, and of how he thinks sports marketing will change in the future. In the first research article, Janet Hoek, Philip Gendall and Katie Theed, from Massey University in New Zealand, address the way in which sponsorship campaigns are evaluated. Managers, they suggest, have widely assumed that awareness and image measures bear a strong and direct relationship to behaviour. In arguing that this is not necessarily the case, they promote a behavioural approach that they use to propose that sponsorship campaigns are more useful at reinforcing purchasing behaviour than changing it. This is followed by a piece by Don Roy and Bettina Cornwell, two American scholars, who examine the different ways in which product and service firms use sponsorship as a marketing tool. They found that inherent differences in the nature of their businesses are reflected in the ways in which they strategically use sports marketing. The second pair of articles features analyses of sponsorship and marketing campaigns by consultants. In the first, Lucy McCrickard of Ketchum Sponsorship examines approaches followed by new sponsors that have replaced long-term successful predecessors. Using the cases of the London Marathon and the Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race, McCrickard details the issues faced and strategies adopted as Flora and Aberdeen Asset Management sought to surpass the associations of Mars and Beefeater Gin respectively. Simon Preece then goes on to give a fascinating insight into England’s bid to host the 2006 World Cup finals. Preece outlines the strategic approach adopted by his elmwood consultancy in helping the English Football Association put together a stronglybranded bid campaign that, they hope, will give England a competitive advantage over rivals Germany and South Africa. Mike Reynolds, Director of the Institute of Sports Sponsorship, concludes this issue by providing us with his thoughts on the evolution of the sponsorship industry and the role of ISS in it. He also uses the results of a recent sponsorship research campaign carried out in the UK by RQA Limited to outline some of the issues that the industry is currently facing. Thanks to everybody who has contributed to this issue, and the others that we have produced over the last year. The final copies that you read have benefited from the exhaustive feedback provided by editorial board members and guest reviewers. Their hard work is greatly appreciated, as is that of project manager Jane Leigh. Let me take this opportunity of wishing you all a happy and peaceful Christmas and New Year. I look forward to continuing to receive your submissions and comments next year. John Amis, PhD Editor November 1999

Jeff Price, Vice President of US Sponsorships & Events, MasterCard International
Paper 1
Sports Sponsorship Evaluation: A Behavioural Analysis
Janet Hoek, Massey University
Philip Gendall, Massey University
Katie Theed, Massey University
Sponsorship has traditionally been seen as having an effect on brand awareness and image. This paper seeks to evaluate the behavioural impact of sponsorship on consumers. Ehrenberg's Awareness-Trial-Reinforcement model was used as a basis for developing the model in the evaluation of a Fisher & Paykel sponsored netball series between New Zealand and Australia. The findings suggest that sponsorship did not move respondents along the continuum to purchase behaviour, but rather reinforced the sponsored brand's place in the market. It suggests that sponsors could make more use of behavioural goals by incorporating call-to-action messages in the campaigns.
Paper 2
Managers' Use of Sponsorship in Building Brands: Service and Product Firms Contrasted
Donald P. Roy, UNC-Pembroke
T. Bettina Cornwell, University of Memphis
The paper analyses the difference in use of sponsorship and perception of effectiveness between product and service-based companies. Four key questions were asked of sponsors in a two stage survey. Sponsors were polled about whether they differ in the type of event sponsored, the objectives of their sponsorship, the target audiences and their perceptions of the effectiveness of sponsorship in building brand knowledge. The findings include more product firms being involved in sports sponsorship and similar objectives and target audiences being stated by both categories. The results, however, showed that service companies reported a higher mean perceived effectiveness on all five elements of brand knowledge measured. The hypothesis being that service firms recognise a greater requirement to articulate the meaning of the brand/sponsorship and consequently leverage the potential better. This offers valuable lessons for product firms in how they can leverage their rights.
Paper 3
Is It Possible To Replace A Successful Sponsor?
Lucy McCrickard, Ketchum Sponsorship
With the sponsorship industry maturing it is inevitable that an increasing number of companies will be replacing very successful sponsors thus creating the problem of how to step out of the shadow of the incumbent. The paper analyses two such examples; The London Marathon, which saw Mars ultimately replaced by Flora, and the London Boat Race which saw Beefeater replaced by Aberdeen Asset Management. The study shows that it is possible to replace a successful sponsor but that several key elements such as clear objective setting, research, internal buy-in, and investment in exploitation were vital to the success.
Paper 4
World Cup 2006 Bid: A Case Study - Bidding To Bring Football Home
Simon Preece, elmwood
The paper examines the production process of the official documentation for England's bid to host the 2006 World Cup. It covers every aspect of the process including analysis of other major sporting bid documents and research of the requirements of the FIFA Executive Committee through to the design approach. The documentation was ultimately presented in two parts 'We Are Ready' a technical presentation demonstrating the infrastructure to host the tournament and 'We Are Right' an emotional presentation to explain why England was the right choice from a sporting and cultural point of view.
Paper 5
The Institute of Sports Sponsorship: Its Role In An Evolving Industry
Mike Reynolds, Institute of Sports Sponsorship
Mike Reynolds explains the role of the Institute of Sports Sponsorship, the UK trade body representing the sponsorship industry. Members include sponsors, sports clubs and associations and sponsorship agencies. The institute plays several important roles including defending and promoting sponsorship and encouraging grass roots sponsorship, particularly through the administration of Sportsmatch, a government backed scheme in which grass roots sponsorship income can be matched by a government grant. The ISS has also worked with other official bodies to help create the Sports Sponsorship Advisory Service (SSAS). Reynolds discusses a research project undertaken by the SSAS to assess the views of sponsors towards sports properties. It suggests 'middle market' properties in particular could struggle in their attempts to attract sponsorship.
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